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gross solids pollution from a fish-processing factory outfallOutfalls are the end of the line at many industrial or wastewater treatment plants and care must be taken to design them properly so that pollutant concentrations in the environment can be minimized.

Publically available computer programs like CORMIX are commonly used to design outfalls to work in particular situations.  However, for more difficult conditions with complex 3D influences CFD plays a crucial role. 

In the example below, CFD was used to assess the effect of diffuser flows on contaminant exposure of riverbed sediments, and to improve the diffuser's design (i.e., maintain adequate mixing and reduce local bed-scour). 

FLOW3D simulation of an outfall diffuser







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